4 years

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What diseases do the vaccines protect children against?

The combined DTPa/IPV vaccine strengthens children’s immunity to diptheria, tetanus, pertussis, and polio.

You can read more about these diseases below:


Diphtheria is a very serious disease. It can cause a membrane (or skin) to grow over a child’s throat, which stops them from breathing. You may not have heard of it because it is so rare in Australia now. The vaccine is still used here so that children can’t catch diphtheria from people who have travelled to places where it is more common, including nearby holiday destinations in Asia and the South Pacific1.

Learn more about diphtheria and the diphtheria vaccine


Tetanus is sometimes called ‘lockjaw’. Tetanus affects all the muscles in a child’s body, including the ones they use for breathing. The germ that causes tetanus lives in the soil, which means children can get tetanus through a cut, a burn, a bite or even just a prick from something like a nail or a thorn1.

Learn more about tetanus and tetanus vaccination


Pertussis is usually called ‘whooping cough’. It spreads very easily from one person to another through the air, like a cold. When someone who already has the disease coughs or sneezes, the pertussis germs float through the air on tiny droplets. If a child breathes in those droplets, they can catch pertussis, too. Pertussis irritates the airways, which causes long coughing fits that can be very severe. Small babies can die from whooping cough1.

Learn more about pertussis and pertussis vaccination


Polio causes muscle paralysis in the limbs and can also affect the heart and the muscles that control breathing. It is rare in Australia but still common in countries including Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria. Polio germs are spread through contact which means children can catch polio when they put things like hands or toys in their mouth after someone with polio has been touching them1. A person with polio can pass on the disease before they even know they are sick.

Learn more about polio and polio vaccination

What do I need to do before our appointment?

There’s no need to do anything special to get your child ready for their vaccinations, but you can plan to take some toys with you, or load some music or a video onto your phone or tablet beforehand.

Children can usually get their vaccinations on time, even if they are feeling a little unwell. If your child has a high fever or if you are worried they are not well enough to be vaccinated, give your doctor or nurse a call. They will let you know if you should come in, or if you need to make an appointment for another day.

You’ll need to take your child’s health record booklet with you (that’s the one you were given in hospital or at the birth centre when your child was born). Your doctor or nurse will make notes in the booklet about your child’s growth and development, and write down the details of the vaccinations they had.

How can I make vaccination easier for my child?

What will happen when we get there?

Some parents take their children to their local general practice where the doctor (GP) or practice nurse will give the vaccine. Others take their children to a vaccination clinic run by nurses. The majority of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Health Services also give vaccinations. Vaccination appointments can run differently in different places but this is a rough guide to what you can expect on the day.

  • Appointments usually begin with a health check. Your doctor or nurse will ask you how you and your child are going. They will ask if you have any questions for them. They’ll measure and weigh your child. And they will write some notes in your child’s health record booklet to help you keep track of how they’re growing and developing.
  • Once that’s done, the doctor or nurse will get the vaccination ready. Some doctors will ask you to go to another room where a nurse who is specially trained in vaccinating children will vaccinate your child.
  • Most doctors and nurses will suggest that you hold your child on your lap during the vaccination. Research shows that children feel less pain during vaccinations when they are being cuddled2. Some parents find it upsetting to be there when their children have needles. If you would rather not be in the room while your child gets vaccinated, you can have a family member or friend do it for you. If you can’t bring anyone with you, let your doctor or nurse know: they may be able to arrange someone to stand in for you.
  • The combined vaccine that children get at four years of age is given in a single needle. The needle usually goes in the child’s arm. The doctor or nurse will be as quick and gentle as they can.
  • The doctor or nurse will ask you to stay at the clinic for about 15 minutes after the vaccinations. This is so they can make sure everything is OK before you and your child leave.

Take a look at our video: What will happen when we get there?

How can I make it easier for my child?

No matter how gentle your doctor or nurse is, needles hurt! And most children cry at least a little after they get a needle.

The good news is that researchers are beginning to understand more about children’s pain and have found some things you can do to make needles feel less painful.

  • Holding or cuddling children triggers the release of pain-relieving hormones, so hold your child firmly in a chest-to-chest position before, during and after the needles2.
  • At this age, your child can have a local anaesthetic to numb the skin where the needle goes. In Australia, it comes as a cream on a sticky patch. Put the patch on your child’s skin an hour or so before you see your doctor or nurse2.
  • Distractions help reduce pain for children at this age. When it’s time for the needles, distract your child with a toy or an activity like reading or singing. Some parents give their children a phone or a tablet to play with2.
  • Taking big breaths can make needles hurt less. Bring along toys like pinwheels or bubble-blowers that encourage your child to take some deep breaths while the doctor or nurse gives them their needles2.

Some parents don’t like needles themselves and find it very hard to watch their children get vaccinated.  If you think watching your child have a needle will upset you, you can ask a friend or relative take them in for you. If you don’t have anyone you could ask, mention it to your nurse or doctor to see if they can arrange to have someone else help out.

Take a look at our video: How can I make it easier for my child?

How will my child feel after the vaccinations?

Immediately after they get an injection, most children will cry for a minute or two. You can help them feel better by cuddling them, breastfeeding them, or keeping them distracted with a toy or an activity that they enjoy.

For a day or two afterwards, some children could feel a little unwell. The most common reactions are:

  • redness, soreness or swelling at the spot where the needles went in
  • a small, hard, painless bump (also called a nodule) at the spot where the needle went in
  • loss of appetite
  • mild fever (temperature)
  • grizzly or unsettled behaviour.

Usually these symptoms last between 12 and 24 hours and then get better. Nodules may take a few weeks to disappear.

Read more about these common reactions and how you can look after them at home


If your child doesn’t seem to be getting better, or you are worried about your child, you can get help from:

  • your doctor
  • your nearest emergency department

or by calling Health Direct on 1800 022 222.

Are there any rare side effects I need to know about?

Serious side effects are very rare, but they can happen and some parents want to know more about them before they vaccinate their children.

If your child doesn’t seem to be getting better, or you are worried about your child, you can get help from:

  • your doctor
  • your nearest emergency department
  • or by calling Health Direct on 1800 022 222.

Febrile convulsions

About one in every 3,000 children experience fits or seizures known as ‘febrile convulsions’ around seven to ten days after they get the MMR vaccine. Febrile convulsions are scary for parents to see, but children usually recover quickly without any long-term effects1. Febrile convulsions usually occur when a child’s temperature goes up very quickly, and stop once their temperature stops rising.


‘Anaphylaxis’ is a severe allergic reaction to one of the vaccine ingredients. Less than one in every one million babies who gets a vaccine has this reaction1. Anaphylaxis usually happens within a few minutes of vaccination, before you and your baby leave the clinic. Your doctor or nurse knows what to do to help a baby having an anaphylactic reaction recover quickly.

When do we come back for more vaccinations?

The next vaccinations are recommended for teenagers. Teens need booster doses of some of the vaccines they have already had plus a vaccine to protect them from the Human Papillomavirus (HPV). HPV can cause cancers of the mouth, throat and reproductive organs.

What if I still have questions?

If you still have some questions about vaccinations for your baby, write them down and make an appointment with your nurse, your doctor, or your health worker so you can ask them.

  1. Australian Technical Advisory Group on Immunisation (ATAGI). Australian Immunisation Handbook, Australian Government Department of Health, Canberra, 2018, immunisationhandbook.health.gov.au
  2. Taddio A, et al. Reducing pain during vaccine injections: clinical practice guideline. Canadian Medical Association Journal 2015;187:975-982 http://www.cmaj.ca/content/cmaj/187/13/975.full.pdf

Video Explainers

What Will Happen When We Get There?

1:35 mins

How Can I Make Things Easier For My Child?

2:04 mins